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FreeRTOS(五)——heap文件解析

2018-3-5 06:50
原作者: 外星人源码网 来自: 外星人源码网 收藏 分享 邀请

FreeRTOS提供了5中内存分配的方式,分别在heap_1.c, heap_2.c, heap_3.c, heap_4.c, heap_5.c中。 对于传统的库函数malloc和free,有以下的缺陷:线程不安全 耗时 有些嵌入式硬件没有实现所以FreeRTOS提供了5中内存 ...

FreeRTOS提供了5中内存分配的方式,分别在heap_1.c, heap_2.c, heap_3.c, heap_4.c, heap_5.c中。

对于传统的库函数malloc和free,有以下的缺陷:

线程不安全 耗时 有些嵌入式硬件没有实现

所以FreeRTOS提供了5中内存分配的方式,用户当然也可以自己实现。

下面分别来解析以下这5个heap文件
5个heap的位置在Source/portable/MemMang/

heap_1.c

从一个静态数组力分配 只分配内存,不释放

适用于不会删除任务 、队列、信号量、互斥量的应用程序

注释

The simplest possible implementation of pvPortMalloc().  Note that this implementation does NOT allow allocated memory to be freed again.

表示只分配,不释放

内存分配函数

void *pvPortMalloc( size_t xWantedSize )
{
void *pvReturn = NULL;
static uint8_t *pucAlignedHeap = NULL;

    /* Ensure that blocks are always aligned to the required number of bytes. */
    #if( portBYTE_ALIGNMENT != 1 )
    {
        if( xWantedSize & portBYTE_ALIGNMENT_MASK )
        {
            /* Byte alignment required. */
            xWantedSize += ( portBYTE_ALIGNMENT - ( xWantedSize & portBYTE_ALIGNMENT_MASK ) );
        }
    }
    #endif

    vTaskSuspendAll();
    {
        if( pucAlignedHeap == NULL )
        {
            /* Ensure the heap starts on a correctly aligned boundary. */
            pucAlignedHeap = ( uint8_t * ) ( ( ( portPOINTER_SIZE_TYPE ) &ucHeap[ portBYTE_ALIGNMENT ] ) & ( ~( ( portPOINTER_SIZE_TYPE ) portBYTE_ALIGNMENT_MASK ) ) );
        }

        /* Check there is enough room left for the allocation. */
        if( ( ( xNextFreeByte + xWantedSize ) < configADJUSTED_HEAP_SIZE ) &&
            ( ( xNextFreeByte + xWantedSize ) > xNextFreeByte )    )/* Check for overflow. */
        {
            /* Return the next free byte then increment the index past this
            block. */
            pvReturn = pucAlignedHeap + xNextFreeByte;
            xNextFreeByte += xWantedSize;
        }

        traceMALLOC( pvReturn, xWantedSize );
    }
    ( void ) xTaskResumeAll();

    #if( configUSE_MALLOC_FAILED_HOOK == 1 )
    {
        if( pvReturn == NULL )
        {
            extern void vApplicationMallocFailedHook( void );
            vApplicationMallocFailedHook();
        }
    }
    #endif

    return pvReturn;
}

解析

首先是内存对齐判断

    #if( portBYTE_ALIGNMENT != 1 )
    {
        if( xWantedSize & portBYTE_ALIGNMENT_MASK )
        {
            /* Byte alignment required. */
            xWantedSize += ( portBYTE_ALIGNMENT - ( xWantedSize & portBYTE_ALIGNMENT_MASK ) );
        }
    }
    #endif

这里,如果内存对齐有效,则执行,如果要分配的内存不是对齐字节(通常是8)的整数倍,则补齐,所以xWantedSize要加上要补齐的长度

然后挂起调度器

vTaskSuspendAll();

防止分配内存过程中被打断。

静态数组对齐检查

pucAlignedHeap = ( uint8_t * ) ( ( ( portPOINTER_SIZE_TYPE ) &ucHeap[ portBYTE_ALIGNMENT ] ) & ( ~( ( portPOINTER_SIZE_TYPE ) portBYTE_ALIGNMENT_MASK ) ) );

这里uheap就是静态数组,首先确保它对齐了,因为uheap的首地址可能不是8的倍数,所以,确保实际开始分配的地址是对齐的
比如基础地址低三位是3,+8之后是11,屏蔽低三位后是8,也就是8的倍数,对齐了,这样开头就有5个字节直接被抛弃了

溢出检测

if( ( ( xNextFreeByte + xWantedSize ) < configADJUSTED_HEAP_SIZE ) && ( ( xNextFreeByte + xWantedSize ) > xNextFreeByte )    )
/* Check for overflow. */

分配内存

pvReturn = pucAlignedHeap + xNextFreeByte;
xNextFreeByte += xWantedSize;

恢复调度器

( void ) xTaskResumeAll();

分配失败hook函数

    #if( configUSE_MALLOC_FAILED_HOOK == 1 )
    {
        if( pvReturn == NULL )
        {
            extern void vApplicationMallocFailedHook( void );
            vApplicationMallocFailedHook();
        }
    }
    #endif

如果开启了分配失败hook函数,就调用该hook

释放

void vPortFree( void *pv )
{
    /* Memory cannot be freed using this scheme.  See heap_2.c, heap_3.c and
    heap_4.c for alternative implementations, and the memory management pages of
    http://www.FreeRTOS.org for more information. */
    ( void ) pv;

    /* Force an assert as it is invalid to call this function. */
    configASSERT( pv == NULL );
}

heap_1.c里不释放内存

heap_2.c

/*
 * A sample implementation of pvPortMalloc() and vPortFree() that permits
 * allocated blocks to be freed, but does not combine adjacent free blocks
 * into a single larger block (and so will fragment memory).  See heap_4.c for
 * an equivalent that does combine adjacent blocks into single larger blocks.
 */

分配和释放内存,但对内存碎片不做处理,也就是说,不会把内存碎片合并为一个大的碎片

void *pvPortMalloc( size_t xWantedSize )
{
BlockLink_t *pxBlock, *pxPreviousBlock, *pxNewBlockLink;
static BaseType_t xHeapHasBeenInitialised = pdFALSE;
void *pvReturn = NULL;

    vTaskSuspendAll();
    {
        /* If this is the first call to malloc then the heap will require
        initialisation to setup the list of free blocks. */
        if( xHeapHasBeenInitialised == pdFALSE )
        {
            prvHeapInit();
            xHeapHasBeenInitialised = pdTRUE;
        }

        /* The wanted size is increased so it can contain a BlockLink_t
        structure in addition to the requested amount of bytes. */
        if( xWantedSize > 0 )
        {
            xWantedSize += heapSTRUCT_SIZE;

            /* Ensure that blocks are always aligned to the required number of bytes. */
            if( ( xWantedSize & portBYTE_ALIGNMENT_MASK ) != 0 )
            {
                /* Byte alignment required. */
                xWantedSize += ( portBYTE_ALIGNMENT - ( xWantedSize & portBYTE_ALIGNMENT_MASK ) );
            }
        }

        if( ( xWantedSize > 0 ) && ( xWantedSize < configADJUSTED_HEAP_SIZE ) )
        {
            /* Blocks are stored in byte order - traverse the list from the start
            (smallest) block until one of adequate size is found. */
            pxPreviousBlock = &xStart;
            pxBlock = xStart.pxNextFreeBlock;
            while( ( pxBlock->xBlockSize < xWantedSize ) && ( pxBlock->pxNextFreeBlock != NULL ) )
            {
                pxPreviousBlock = pxBlock;
                pxBlock = pxBlock->pxNextFreeBlock;
            }

            /* If we found the end marker then a block of adequate size was not found. */
            if( pxBlock != &xEnd )
            {
                /* Return the memory space - jumping over the BlockLink_t structure
                at its start. */
                pvReturn = ( void * ) ( ( ( uint8_t * ) pxPreviousBlock->pxNextFreeBlock ) + heapSTRUCT_SIZE );

                /* This block is being returned for use so must be taken out of the
                list of free blocks. */
                pxPreviousBlock->pxNextFreeBlock = pxBlock->pxNextFreeBlock;

                /* If the block is larger than required it can be split into two. */
                if( ( pxBlock->xBlockSize - xWantedSize ) > heapMINIMUM_BLOCK_SIZE )
                {
                    /* This block is to be split into two.  Create a new block
                    following the number of bytes requested. The void cast is
                    used to prevent byte alignment warnings from the compiler. */
                    pxNewBlockLink = ( void * ) ( ( ( uint8_t * ) pxBlock ) + xWantedSize );

                    /* Calculate the sizes of two blocks split from the single
                    block. */
                    pxNewBlockLink->xBlockSize = pxBlock->xBlockSize - xWantedSize;
                    pxBlock->xBlockSize = xWantedSize;

                    /* Insert the new block into the list of free blocks. */
                    prvInsertBlockIntoFreeList( ( pxNewBlockLink ) );
                }

                xFreeBytesRemaining -= pxBlock->xBlockSize;
            }
        }

        traceMALLOC( pvReturn, xWantedSize );
    }
    ( void ) xTaskResumeAll();

    #if( configUSE_MALLOC_FAILED_HOOK == 1 )
    {
        if( pvReturn == NULL )
        {
            extern void vApplicationMallocFailedHook( void );
            vApplicationMallocFailedHook();
        }
    }
    #endif

    return pvReturn;
}
/*-----------------------------------------------------------*/

void vPortFree( void *pv )
{
uint8_t *puc = ( uint8_t * ) pv;
BlockLink_t *pxLink;

    if( pv != NULL )
    {
        /* The memory being freed will have an BlockLink_t structure immediately
        before it. */
        puc -= heapSTRUCT_SIZE;

        /* This unexpected casting is to keep some compilers from issuing
        byte alignment warnings. */
        pxLink = ( void * ) puc;

        vTaskSuspendAll();
        {
            /* Add this block to the list of free blocks. */
            prvInsertBlockIntoFreeList( ( ( BlockLink_t * ) pxLink ) );
            xFreeBytesRemaining += pxLink->xBlockSize;
            traceFREE( pv, pxLink->xBlockSize );
        }
        ( void ) xTaskResumeAll();
    }
}
/*-----------------------------------------------------------*/

解析以下,heap_2.c里,不同内存间靠链表维系。
所以有这么一个结构体

typedef struct A_BLOCK_LINK
{
    struct A_BLOCK_LINK *pxNextFreeBlock;   /*<< The next free block in the list. */
    size_t xBlockSize;                      /*<< The size of the free block. */
} BlockLink_t;

这个结构体主要充当表头的作用,用来串起每一块内存,方便分配和释放,分配就是一个插入链表的操作,释放就是删除链表的操作。

heap_3.c

这个文件里直接调用了malloc和free,依赖平台自己的实现。

void *pvPortMalloc( size_t xWantedSize )
{
void *pvReturn;

    vTaskSuspendAll();
    {
        pvReturn = malloc( xWantedSize );
        traceMALLOC( pvReturn, xWantedSize );
    }
    ( void ) xTaskResumeAll();

    #if( configUSE_MALLOC_FAILED_HOOK == 1 )
    {
        if( pvReturn == NULL )
        {
            extern void vApplicationMallocFailedHook( void );
            vApplicationMallocFailedHook();
        }
    }
    #endif

    return pvReturn;
}
/*-----------------------------------------------------------*/

void vPortFree( void *pv )
{
    if( pv )
    {
        vTaskSuspendAll();
        {
            free( pv );
            traceFREE( pv, 0 );
        }
        ( void ) xTaskResumeAll();
    }
}

heap_4.c

同heap_2.c的实现,不同的是,4会合并内存碎片,而且比malloc高效,非常常用,但是依然有碎片的风险。
它只是把空闲内存都串起来。
比如要分配一个大内存,但是内存里都是不连续的碎片空间,也会造成失败

heap_5.c

同4,不同的,可以使用不连续的内存空间。

参考:

http://elmagnificogi.github.i...


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